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Bootstrap CSS: Layout a Page

Layout is a mechanism of arranging objects or elements on a paper, screen or in a physical world according to the vision of an individual, a group or an organization.
In web development, the concept of layout is no different, defining a layout is how the consistency of a web pages across the website is ensured. Using any platform for a website, defining a layout is the first step in web development, some platforms refer layout of a page as a master page too, but in an essence, layout is how the structure of any website is formalized.

You can download the complete source code for this tutorial or you can follow the step by step discussion below. The sample code is being developed in Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 Enterprise.

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Traditional approach Issues

1) "<div>" tag approach is flexible but, requires a lot of effort on customization of CSS part, layout needs to be separately construct for mobile platforms. In this approach, front-end web developer needs to create and hard code his/her own CSS classes depend on target screen. This approach is not very adaptive to different screen sizes and a lot buggy in nature.  

2) "<table>" tag is strict mechanism and is not adaptable for mobile screens in most of the cases. In this approach, front-end developer needs to create a lot of tables to define the strict layout of the website. This approach is very strict method of layout and not adaptable to screen sizes. Also, maintaining a lot of tables in a large application becomes difficult.

Bootstrap CSS

Bootstrap CSS is a CSS based framework for designing a web structure with less effort. Its flexible and uses a mobile first approach i.e. front-end developer do not need to develop any extra CSS classes to meet the target screen sizes. The idea of Bootstrap CSS is to use one framework to design layout for all screen sizes e.g. front-end developers can use one framework and design two separate layouts i.e. one for web and one for mobile web or can adjust one layout for both web and mobile web.

Bootstrap CSS Features

Bootstrap CSS framework offers following features i.e.

1) Layout Grid System.
2) Styling Web Elements.
3) Built-In Plugins.


3) Layout Grid System

Following are the list of few from many features Bootstrap CSS layout grid system offers i.e.

1) Grid Container

Grid container is the base structure of "Bootstrap CSS" which arrange all the content on screen within. There are two types of grid containers i.e.

a) Container class

Container class is the basic class of Bootstrap CSS layout grid system. It adds padding around the content and wrap the content within as shown below i.e.


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<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>

The above code, can be used in a simple plain "HTML" page that shows how container class is structured.

b) Container-fluid class

Container-fluid class utilizes entire width of the screen and do not add padding around the content as shown below i.e.


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<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container-fluid">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>

The above code demonstrates how container-fluid class is structured.

2) Rows & Columns

Rows and columns are arranged using "row" & "col-screen-*" classes where "screen" define the type of screen you wish to target and * is between 0-12 which define width of the column. The screen parameter is as follow i.e.

a) xs -> for extra small screen devices Phones (<768px)
b) sm -> for small screen devices Tablets (≥768px)  
c) md -> for medium screen devices Desktops (≥992px)  
d) lg -> for large screen devices Desktops (≥1200px)

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<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>



3) Responsive 12-Column Set

As already mention above that column classes consist of 4 screen sizes with 12 set of width. Here below is how can we add them all together i.e.
 
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<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container-fluid">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-6 col-md-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-6 col-md-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-6 col-md-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>

In the above code, I am adding three screen sizes together i.e. extra small, small & medium, "col-xs-12 col-sm-6 col-md-4" and here how they will look when screen size is change (you can experiment in browser by changing browser zooms) i.e.

a) Medium Size (col-md-4)

 



b) Small Size (col-sm-6)

 


c) Extra Small Size (col-xs-12)

 


4) Offsetting Column

In Bootstrap CSS framework offsetting a column means that how much left margin is needed to move the column. "col-screen-offset-*" class is used to move column left i.e.
 
<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container-fluid">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4 col-sm-offset-2">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4 col-sm-offset-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>
 
In the above code, we have move our columns to have following arrangement on screen i.e.


5) Ordering Column

In Bootstrap CSS framework ordering a column means that how much we want to push or pull a particular column in a row. "col-screen-push-*" & "col-screen-pull-*" classes are used to order a column i.e.

 <!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4 col-sm-push-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4 col-sm-pull-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>
 
In the above code, we have order our columns as follow i.e.


Notice in above image that we have change column 1 with column 2, here we have used Bootstrap CSS ordering classes to do so, instead of manually editing the code to achieve above arrangement.

2) Styling Web Elements

Following are the list of few from many features Bootstrap CSS offers for styling the web elements i.e.

1) Text Highlight

This feature allows to highlight particular text elements within large paragraph. It uses "" tag to highlight background of the test and "" tag to underline the text as demonstrate below i.e.

<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body style="background-color: maroon;color: white;">  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4 col-sm-push-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, <mark><ins>consectetur adipisicing</ins></mark> elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4 col-sm-pull-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html> 

In the above "mark & ins" tags will highlight the column 1 particular text as shown below i.e.


2) Keyboard Input Highlight

"kbd" tag is used to highlight the keyboard user input keys as demonstrated below i.e.

<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="jumbotron text-center">  
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>  
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>   
 </div>  
 <div class="container">  
  <div class="row">  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 1</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, <kbd><kbd>ctrl</kbd> + <kbd>c</kbd></kbd> consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 2</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
   <div class="col-sm-4">  
    <h3>Column 3</h3>      
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit...</p>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris...</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>
 
In the above code, "ctrl + c" line of code will highlight the keyboard key "Ctrl + C" as shown below i.e.

3) Table Style

Bootstrap CSS "table" class can be used to style tables web elements on a website i.e.


 <!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
  <h2>Basic Table</h2>  
  <p>The .table class adds basic styling (light padding and only horizontal dividers) to a table:</p>        
  <table class="table table-striped">  
   <thead>  
    <tr>  
     <th>Firstname</th>  
     <th>Lastname</th>  
     <th>Email</th>  
    </tr>  
   </thead>  
   <tbody>  
    <tr>  
     <td>John</td>  
     <td>Doe</td>  
     <td>john@example.com</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
     <td>Mary</td>  
     <td>Moe</td>  
     <td>mary@example.com</td>  
    </tr>  
    <tr>  
     <td>July</td>  
     <td>Dooley</td>  
     <td>july@example.com</td>  
    </tr>  
   </tbody>  
  </table>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>  

In the above code, we have used "table-striped" class along with "table" class to have alternate color for table rows as shown below i.e.


4) Buttons Style

In Bootstrap CSS frame work "btn" class in combination with "btm-*" class is used to style the buttons and * represent color. Default colors are theme dependent. Main color classes are "default" (default theme) class, "primary" (primary theme color) class, "danger" (red color) class, "warning" (yellow color) class and "success" (green color) class as demonstrated below. Bootstrap themes can be generated from here
 
<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
  <h2>Basic Buttons</h2>  
 <a class="btn btn-danger" href="#" role="button">Link</a>  
 <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Button</button>  
 <input class="btn btn-warning" type="button" value="Input">  
 <input class="btn btn-success" type="submit" value="Submit">  
 </body>  
 </html>  

Above code execution is shown below i.e.


3) Built-In Plugins

Following are the list of few from many features Bootstrap CSS offers as built-in plugins i.e.

1) Dropdown Plugin

Bootstrap CSS frame uses combination of "button", "ul", "li" & "a" tags to create a very stylidh dropdown menu as demonstrated below i.e.


<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
  <h2>Basic Dropdown</h2>  
 <div class="dropdown">  
  <button class="btn btn-primary dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenu1" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="true">  
   Dropdown  
   <span class="caret"></span>  
  </button>  
  <ul class="dropdown-menu" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenu1">  
   <li><a href="#">Action</a></li>  
   <li><a href="#">Another action</a></li>  
   <li><a href="#">Something else here</a></li>  
   <li role="separator" class="divider"></li>  
   <li><a href="#">Separated link</a></li>  
  </ul>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html> 

Above code will show following stylish dropdown plugin i.e.


2) Modal Plugin

Modal is a very useful plugin, especially, when we want to show particular information on existing page with interactive behavior instead of loading a new page or using heavy plugins for such matter i.e.
 
<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
  <h2>Modal Example</h2>  
  <!-- Trigger the modal with a button -->  
  <button type="button" class="btn btn-info btn-lg" data-toggle="modal" data-target="#myModal">Open Modal</button>  
  <!-- Modal -->  
  <div class="modal fade" id="myModal" role="dialog">  
   <div class="modal-dialog">  
    <!-- Modal content-->  
    <div class="modal-content">  
     <div class="modal-header">  
      <button type="button" class="close" data-dismiss="modal">&times;</button>  
      <h4 class="modal-title">Modal Header</h4>  
     </div>  
     <div class="modal-body">  
      <p>Some text in the modal.</p>  
     </div>  
     <div class="modal-footer">  
      <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" data-dismiss="modal">Close</button>  
     </div>  
    </div>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html> 

Modal will look like below image i.e.


3) Tab Plugin

Tabs on a page is another useful plugin offer by Bootstra CSS framework i.e.
 
<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Case</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
  <h2>Tabs</h2>   
  <ul class="nav nav-tabs">  
   <li class="active"><a data-toggle="tab" href="#home">Home</a></li>  
   <li><a data-toggle="tab" href="#menu1">Menu 1</a></li>  
   <li><a data-toggle="tab" href="#menu2">Menu 2</a></li>  
   <li><a data-toggle="tab" href="#menu3">Menu 3</a></li>  
  </ul>  
  <div class="tab-content">  
   <div id="home" class="tab-pane fade in active">  
    <h3>HOME</h3>  
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.</p>  
   </div>  
   <div id="menu1" class="tab-pane fade">  
    <h3>Menu 1</h3>  
    <p>Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>  
   </div>  
   <div id="menu2" class="tab-pane fade">  
    <h3>Menu 2</h3>  
    <p>Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam.</p>  
   </div>  
   <div id="menu3" class="tab-pane fade">  
    <h3>Menu 3</h3>  
    <p>Eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo.</p>  
   </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html> 

Execution of above is shown below i.e.


4) Popover Plugin

Bootstra CSS framework offers a very interactive popover plugin, which can be utilize to display bubble messages i.e.


<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
 <br/>  
 <br/>  
 <br/>  
  <h3>Popover Example</h3>  
  <div class="row">  
      <div class="col-xs-12 col-xs-push-2">  
 <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" data-container="body" data-toggle="popover" data-placement="left" data-content="Vivamus sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus.">  
  Popover on left  
 </button>  
 <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" data-container="body" data-toggle="popover" data-placement="top" data-content="Vivamus sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus.">  
  Popover on top  
 </button>  
 <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" data-container="body" data-toggle="popover" data-placement="bottom" data-content="Vivamus  
 sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus.">  
  Popover on bottom  
 </button>  
 <button type="button" class="btn btn-default" data-container="body" data-toggle="popover" data-placement="right" data-content="Vivamus sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus.">  
  Popover on right  
 </button>  
      </div>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 <script>  
 $(document).ready(function(){  
   $('[data-toggle="popover"]').popover();    
 });  
 </script>  
 </body>  
 </html> 

Execution is shown below i.e.


5) Slide (Carousel) Plugin

Depend on the type of website, slider plugin is very handy to highlight feature posts on a website or afvertising something i.e.


<!DOCTYPE html>  
 <html lang="en">  
 <head>  
  <title>Bootstrap Example</title>  
  <meta charset="utf-8">  
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">  
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css">  
  <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>  
  <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>  
  <style>  
  .carousel-inner > .item > img,  
  .carousel-inner > .item > a > img {  
    width: 100%;  
    margin: auto;  
  }  
  </style>  
 </head>  
 <body>  
 <div class="container">  
  <br>  
  <div id="myCarousel" class="carousel slide" data-ride="carousel">  
   <!-- Indicators -->  
   <ol class="carousel-indicators">  
    <li data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="0" class="active"></li>  
    <li data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="1"></li>  
    <li data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="2"></li>  
    <li data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="3"></li>  
   </ol>  
   <!-- Wrapper for slides -->  
   <div class="carousel-inner" role="listbox">  
    <div class="item active">  
     <img src="slide1.jpg" alt="Slide-1" width="460" height="345">  
    </div>  
    <div class="item">  
     <img src="slide2.jpg" alt="Slide-2" width="460" height="345">  
    </div>  
    <div class="item">  
     <img src="slide3.jpg" alt="Slide-3" width="460" height="345">  
    </div>  
    <div class="item">  
     <img src="slide4.jpg" alt="Slide-4" width="460" height="345">  
    </div>  
   </div>  
   <!-- Left and right controls -->  
   <a class="left carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" role="button" data-slide="prev">  
    <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-left" aria-hidden="true"></span>  
    <span class="sr-only">Previous</span>  
   </a>  
   <a class="right carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" role="button" data-slide="next">  
    <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-chevron-right" aria-hidden="true"></span>  
    <span class="sr-only">Next</span>  
   </a>  
  </div>  
 </div>  
 </body>  
 </html>

Execution is shown below i.e.


Conclusion

In this post you will learn about background of layout a web page traditionally and you will learn about Bootstrap CSS framework. You will also learn about bootstrap CSS framework layout grid system, styling of web elements using variety of bootstrap CSS classes and few fro many plugins that bootstrap CSS framework offers in order to make website interactive and user friendly. Working samples can be downloaded.

Disclaimer

Most of the Code sample are used from W3Schools. I do not own any sample code except that alterations are made into the sample codes to meet the desire execution.

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